Table 1
ContributionPaperStudy aimsContext/settingParticipant groupParticipants (n)Data collection points (n) and interviews (total n)Data analysis and presentation
1. Exploring views and experiences of variety of participants over time.Murray et al52To compare the illness trajectories, needs and service use of patients with cancer and those with advanced non-malignant disease CommunityPatients with newly diagnosed inoperable lung cancer, patients with advanced cardiac failure, informal carers and their HCPs40 patients, numbers not reported for carers and HCPs93 with patients (53 with carers and 73 with HCPs) Interviews conducted at 3 monthly intervals for up to a year Additional interviews with carers after bereavementNarrative analysis, ‘themes spanning time’ approach
Checkland et al471. To examine how CCGs approached the task and process of setting themselves up.
2. To examine how CCGs are structured and what roles GPs adopt.
Primary careManagers, HCPs and lay members91 participants in phase I, 42 participants in phase IIMultimethod approach including 96 interviews in phase I (18-month period) and 42 interviews in phase II (2-year period)Thematic analysis within wider realist approach framework, themes spanning time approach
2. Following participants through important transitions.Lawton et al29To explore patients’ perceptions and experiences over time of the devolvement of diabetes care from secondary to primary care healthcare settingSecondary and primary carePatients with diabetes20 patients80 interviews with patients at four time points over 4 yearsThematic analysis, themes spanning time approach
Gordon et al20To explore trainee doctors’ experiences of the transition to trained doctorVarious medical settingsTrainee doctors expected to complete training within the next 6 months20 participants38 interviews at two time points (before completing training) and within 12 months of completing training, also audio diariesFramework analysis, themes spanning time approach
3. Studying implementation of new practices, processes or interventions.Linmans et al30To explore the processes involved in the provision of a lifestyle intervention to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by HCPs in primary care Primary carePatients with diabetes taking part in a lifestyle intervention in primary care, HCPs delivering the interventionNot reportedInterviews with patients after each consultation with HCPs, interviews with HCPs before and after delivering the interventionFramework analysis with phenomenological approach, themes spanning time approach
Laing et al49To explore the contextual factors that influenced the nature and extent of implementation and sustained use of the PINCER {intervention in diverse settings over timePrimary careStaff members from general practices, and policy makers48 participants48 interviews with staff depending on the short-term, medium-term and long-term involvement in the intervention; further interviews plannedThematic analysis, themes spanning time approach
4. Exploring the importance of historical change and/or macro context on individuals’ lives.Murphy et al50To examine how clinicians and managers dealt with the rapid implementation of remote consultingPrimary careGPs, practice managers and nurses41 participants84 interviews conducted across four time points over 4 monthsFramework analysis, combined themes spanning time and ‘themes tied to time points’ approaches
Guzman et al51(protocol)To explore the experiences of community-dwelling older adults during COVID-19CommunityAdults over 65 years old living in community settingsAnticipated sample of 30 participantsData to be collected at two time points 3–10 weeks apartThematic analysis, plans for themes tied to time points approach
5. Developing a deeper understanding of phenomena under study.Smith18To explore women’s transition into motherhoodCommunityWomen within the first trimester of their pregnancyfour participants16 interviews at 3, 6, 9 months of pregnancy, and 5 months after the birth of the childIPA, themes tied to time points approach
Nissim et al22To contribute to the understanding of the desire for hastened death in the context of advanced cancerCommunityPatients with advanced lung or gastrointestinal cancer27 patients54 interviews every 2–4 monthsGrounded theory approach, themes spanning time approach
  • CCG, clinical commissioning group; GP, general practitioner; HCP, healthcare professional.