Table 4

Five similar steps in the process of clinical care, and conducting clinical, management and educational research

1. Identifying the problem2. Gathering information3. Determining whether to proceed4. Implement an intervention5. Evaluating the effect of intervention
Clinical careIdentifying the patient’s chief complaint.Gathering information through the history and clinical references.Assessing the problem and available information.Formulating and implementing a treatment plan.Assessing the outcome of the intervention and revising the treatment plan based on the outcomes of the intervention.
Clinical researchIdentifying the problem/question.Gathering information through a literature review.Assessing whether the topic merits further investigation.Formulating and implementing an intervention or project.Evaluating the results and changing practice based on the findings.
Management researchIdentifying the management or administrative issue.Gathering information about current office practices, other management or administrative approaches.Assessing if the challenge warrants further intervention.Formulating and implementing a quality improvement project.Assessing the impact of the management or administrative change, and evaluate the need for additional change.
Education researchIdentifying the educational problem.Gathering information about other curricula, teaching strategies.Evaluating if there are alternative approaches or if innovation is needed.Formulating and implementing a new curriculum or educational intervention.Evaluating the curriculum or educational intervention and modifying as needed.