Table 5

Published examples of research on HPV for the six featured methodologies

1. Identifying the problem2. Gathering information3. Determining whether to proceed4. Implement an intervention5. Evaluating the effect of intervention
Survey research8What are primary care physicians’ perspectives about HPV?Identified increasing prevalence of cervical and throat cancer, but missed opportunities in prevention.Created a survey on demographics and five major constructs.Conducted national survey of paediatricians and family physicians.Identified steps for addressing gaps and future research.
Semistructured interviews11How does HPV decision making occur in clinical offices?Identified HPV vaccination rates as low, and the decision-making process about vaccination to be poorly understood.Developed interview guide with questions appropriate for adolescents, mothers and clinicians.Conducted semistructured interviews with the three groups.Perspectives were different for each stakeholder group; advised strategies to engage parents and teens.
Curriculum development25How to promote interest in HPV vaccination and promote uptake?Identified HPV as significant public health problem of boys and girls being at risk for cancers caused by HPV.Developed an online educational tool with video, fact sheet and references.Evaluated the curriculum with attitudinal ratings and open comments.Not explicit, but implied feedback being used to improve programming.
Quality improvement14Low HPV vaccination rates across paediatrics practices recognised as problematic.Identified chronic care model to guide quality improvement efforts.Developed an HPV change package for clinical sites, process measures and outcome measures.Different practices presented the strategies used and outcomes in their practices.Recognised potential utility for different strategies and need for ongoing interventions.
Health policy analysis16HPV vaccination was inconsistently supported in Canadian provinces.Identified literature emphasis on HPV infection as female cancer risk factor, but not male cancer risk factor.Examined burden of HPV, efficacy of HPV vaccination, obstacles to male vaccination, new evidence, equity and public advocacy.Systematic consideration of issues and disseminated report through Canadian medical literature.Canadian National Advisory Committee adopted policy supporting vaccine for males 9–26 years old.
Case study21Resistance to HPV vaccination in Uganda despite WHO policy supporting HPV vaccination.Identified sociocultural concern that HPV vaccination encourages early sexual debut of young women.Compare young women’s responses to vaccinations by comparing similar communities, one vaccinated and one not vaccinated.Used surveys and focus group interviews to compare the behaviour of HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated school girls.Identified no difference in sexual debut between communities and advocated routine for HPV vaccination.
  • HPV, human papillomavirus; WHO, World Health Organization.