Table 1

Demographics and prevalence of depression among adults who have completed a periodontal examination and the PHQ-9 depression screening questionnaire in the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey, 2009–2014

Overall no (%)*No symptomsMild depressive symptomsModerate depressive symptomsSevere depressive symptoms
(%)Weighted US population(%)Weighted US population(%)Weighted US population(%)Weighted US population
Overall9799 (100.0)78.4105 225 00014.219 095 0004.56 021 0002.93 827 000
Age
 30–341174 (12.1)77.812 628 00014.82 407 0005.1825 0002.3370 000
 35–493352 (36.8)77.238 102 00014.87 311 0004.72 297 0003.41 666 000
 50–643133 (33.3)77.734 699 00014.36 363 0004.92 205 0003.11 383 000
 65+2140 (17.8)82.819 795 00012.63 014 0002.9693 0001.7408 000
Gender
 Male4912 (49.8)82.955 338 00011.97 955 0003.32 177 0001.91 300 000
 Female4887 (50.2)74.049 887 00016.511 140 0005.73 843 0003.72 527 000
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White4314 (70.0)79.674 302 00014.013 039 0004.03 730 0002.52 313 000
 Non-Hispanic Black2016 (10.4)74.010 274 00016.12 234 0005.8804 0004.1574 000
 Hispanic2377 (13.3)75.013 340 00015.22 694 0005.91 055 0003.9688 000
 Other1092 (6.8)80.17 310 00012.41 128 0004.7432 0002.8252 000
Education
 Less than high school2205 (14.7)70.313 812 00016.23 180 0007.71 508 0005.81 136 000
 High school2118 (20.9)75.821 244 00016.34 575 0004.61 299 0003.3923 000
 More than high school5466 (64.4)81.170 100 00013.111 327 0003.73 214 0002.01 767 000
Poverty
 <100% FPL1672 (11.4)61.98 857 00019.72 822 00010.31 467 0008.21 169 000
 100%–199% FPL2292 (18.8)70.916 752 00017.34 079 0007.61 803 0004.21 001 000
 200%–499% FPL2401 (29.0)78.828 756 00015.35 576 0003.61 320 0002.3855 000
 >500% FPL2668 (40.9)86.344 446 00010.35 295 0002.21 129 0001.2635 000
Smoking status
 Never5447 (56.1)82.361 865 00012.59 423 0003.12 346 0002.11 563 000
 Former2501 (26.7)79.228 380 00014.05 030 0004.21 506 0002.6924 000
 Current1847 (17.2)64.714 950 00020.14 642 0009.42 169 0005.81 340 000
Current alcohol consumption
 Non-heavy drinker8135 (93.4)79.789 872 00013.815 589 0004.14 583 0002.42 749 000
 Heavy drinker529 (6.6)72.05 775 00018.41 473 0005.5443 0004.1327 000
Taking psychotherapeutic medications
 No8681 (86.3)82.294 713 00012.614 556 0003.33 746 0002.02 253 000
 Yes1075 (13.7)55.110 122 00024.34 454 00012.32 250 0008.41 540 000
Diabetes status
 Non-diabetic8547 (90.2)79.596 113 00013.716 518 0004.25 092 0002.73 254 000
 Diabetic1247 (9.8)69.19 085 00019.62 574 0007.1928 0004.3565 000
  • *The sample counts were unweighted while percentages are weighted to account for complex survey design. The weighted population counts are rounded to the nearest 100.

  • FPL, federal poverty level.