Table 3

Logistic regression models of associations between depressive symptoms and periodontitis as well as presence of untreated dental caries among adults aged ≥30 years who completed a periodontal examination and the PHQ-9 depression screening questionnaire in the National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey; 2009–2014 for periodontitis, 2011–2014 for dental caries

Any periodontal diseaseMild periodontal diseaseModerate periodontal diseaseSevere periodontal diseasePresence of untreated dental caries
Crude OR
(99% CI)
(n=9799)
Adjusted OR
(99% CI) (n=7946)
Crude OR
(99% CI) (n=9799)
Adjusted OR
(99% CI) (n=7946)
Crude OR
(99% CI) (n=9799)
Adjusted OR
(99% CI)
(n=7946)
Crude OR
(99% CI) (n=9799)
Adjusted OR
(99% CI)
(n=7946)
Crude OR
(99% CI) (n=7011)
Adjusted OR
(99% CI) (n=5597)
Severity of depressive symptoms
No symptomsRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRefRef
Mild depressive symptoms1.11
(0.89 to 1.39)
0.98
(0.72 to 1.32)
0.97
(0.66 to 1.44)
1.05
(0.66 to 1.66)
1.07
(0.87 to 1.33)
0.92
(0.72 to 1.19)
1.18
(0.86 to 1.62)
1.17
(0.75 to 1.81)
1.44*
(1.23 to 1.83)
1.18
(0.87 to 1.59)
Moderate depressive symptoms1.57*
(1.13 to 2.18)
1.08
(0.70 to 1.66)
1.64
(0.85 to 3.17)
1.59
(0.74 to 3.40)
1.37*
(1.01 to 1.87)
1.02
(0.68 to 1.53)
1.26
(0.69 to 2.28)
1.01
(0.49 to 2.05)
2.38*
(1.48 to 3.83)
1.61
(0.89 to 2.90)
Severe depressive symptoms1.05
(0.66 to 1.70)
0.71
(0.41 to 1.24)
1.57
(0.73 to 3.38)
2.20*
(1.03 to 4.66)
1.03
(0.66 to 1.60)
0.74
(0.47 to 1.17)
0.79
(0.46 to 1.37)
0.54
(0.27 to 1.10)
1.92*
(1.32 to 2.79)
1.19
(0.69 to 2.06)
  • Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, psychotherapeutic medications and diabetes.

  • *P<0.01

  • PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Ref, reference group.