Table 1

Anangu cultural domains principles and key terminology applied to raising children28 and the exposure variables used in the analysis

Anangu termEnglish interpretationExposure variables used in the analysis
KanyiniSense of belonging, holding all of the connections together, keep everything together. Kanyini has been described as vital to keep and maintain rules, stories and ceremonies associated with the three other principles described below.
  • Community cohesion

  • Individual agency

TjurkurpaDreaming (Dreaming is the word used by Aboriginal people to explain how life came to be; it is the stories and beliefs behind creation), basis of Aboriginal Law and custom, knowledge and ways of relating.
  • Cultural practice

  • First language

  • Time spent speaking own Aboriginal language

NguraThe home, the land, the country (country is term used by Aboriginal people to describe the lands, waterways, seas to which they are connected to and includes all living things), this place and community, connection to country (this term encapsulates the link between land and all aspects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s existence—spirituality, culture, language, family, law and identity). The relationship between people and place.
  • Lives on country

  • Time across your life spent on country

  • Know tribe/mob’s (mob is a group of Aboriginal people associated with a particular place and language group) country

WaltjaFamily, extended family, kinship (kinship describes a person’s responsibilities towards other people, the land and living environment) relationships. It extends to include those with whom one is familiar, has stayed with, and has been fed by and cared for, or grown up with. It can refer to anyone with whom a significant relationship has been shared, and includes people and animals.
  • Other family speaks language

  • Knows skin name (skin name is a name given to an Aboriginal person at birth based on the combined skin names of their parents, or given by their community)

  • Knows your mob.

  • *English interpretation has been provided for the key domains. It is important to note that the concepts can be conceptually challenging and difficult to define within a Western cultural framework.