Table 2

Description of included studies using the PICO framework

First author year locationDesign
(assessments) duration
Programme descriptionPsychosocialVisits/costsMissing dataFunding
Conflict of interest
1. Referral, 2. link worker, 3. providers

England, UK40
(two times)
12 months
50+ with 2+ chronic conditionsn=151 assessed
n=126 completed
‘Local health, social and economic services’. p. 2
  • Well-being Star


Health and social care use40/126 people
12 months
Torbay Medical Research Fund
Torbay and South Devon NHS Foundation Trust
73% women79.6 y
  1. GPs and staff from community and social care, hospital discharge, housing, other organisations, self

  2. Link worker

  3. Coordinators from local service


England, UK41
(three times)
6 months
People with dementia diagnosis and family carern=25, 14 people with dementia
‘”Happy and Healthy” classes, which comprise physical and mental well-being exercises’. p. 1854
1. Psychiatrist, GPs and self-referral.
2. NR.
3. Community centre advisers.
SWEMWBSNA3/25 people
3 months (12%)
National Institute for Health Research Applied Research Collaboration North West Coast
36% women74 (8) y Mean (SD)10/25 people
6 months (40%)

Wales, UK42
(two times)
16 weeks
Age 55+ years; community dwelling; no or mild cognitive impairment; and familiesn=159Health Precinct ‘Lifestyle Management, National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS) and Cardiac Rehabilitation’. p. 2
  • Campaign to End

    Loneliness Scale

  • EQ-5D-5L

  • Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

GP appointments93/159 people did not complete study (58%).Health and Care Research Wales Grant
61% women72.4 (8.3) y
Mean (SD)
  1. Healthcare professionals or social care teams.

  2. NR.

  3. Health precinct programme-specific staff.

South Korea43
(two times)
10 weeks
Age 65+ years from rural arean=16‘The interventions consisted of three parts: music storytelling, a self-help group, and gardening’. p. 2
  • GDS-K

  • Self-Efficacy Scale

  • Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

  • Social Participation Scale

  • UCLA Loneliness Scale

NA6/16 people did not complete programme (38%).National Research Foundation of Korea, Grant/Award
All women82 (5.9) y
Mean (SD)
  1. Public health doctor; administrative and welfare office.

  2. Link worker.

  3. Experts, staff and volunteers.

2017 Northern Ireland, UK44
Quality Improvement
(two times)
12 weeks before and 12 weeks during the programme
65+ and chronic condition, GP visits+ or multiple medsn=68‘Social clubs, Men’s Shed, counselling, arts programme, falls prevention, exercises classes, crochet classes, personal development, craft classes, befriending and computer courses’. p. 97NAGP surgery visits
GP home visits
GP telephone calls
Repeat medication prescriptions

40/68 (59%) declined social prescribing activity (not in per protocol analysis)
71% women72.9 (7.3) y Mean (SD)
  1. Local GPs.

  2. Link worker.

  3. NR, but included a variety of activities.

2018 England, UK45
(three times)
10 weeks
65–94 y at risk for social isolation or lonelinessn=115Museum-based programmeMWM-OANRGrant from the Arts and Humanities Research Council
63% women65–94 y
  1. Health and social care; organisations.

  2. NR.

  3. Museum facilitators and volunteers.

2014 London, UK46
(2 weeks)
12 weeks
61–95 y with sensory impairment, socially isolatedn=12Community arts programmeWEMWBS4/12 people did not attend the full programme (33%)Authors work at Sense, a national charity for people with sensory impairment
75% womenMean >80 y
  1. Local GPs.

  2. Link worker.

  3. Sense support staff; communicator guides; visual and tactile arts facilitator.

  • Please note we did not include physical outcomes in the table as there were so few reported in the included studies.

  • EQ-5D-5L, EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Levels; GDS-K, Geriatric Depression Scale Korean Version; GP, general practitioner; MUM-OA, Museum Wellbeing Measure for Older Adults; NA, not assessed; NR, not reported; PAM, patient activation measure; PICO, population, intervention, comparator and outcome; RCFS, Rockwood Clinical Frail Scale; SWEMWBS, Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; WEMWBS, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Health and Well-being Scale; WHOQOL-BREF, WHO Quality of Life (Shorter version); y, years.